Sunday, April 28, 2019

Hydroelectric Projects in Kerala


    • Kerala State Electricity Board (KSEB) was established in : 1957 March 31
    • Tag line of KSEB : Keralathinte Urjjam (കേരളത്തിന്റെ ഊർജ്ജം )
    • Software Used by KSEB for billing purpose : OrumaNet
    • The apex body to ensure integrated operation of the power system in Kerala : State Load Dispatch Center
    • India's first tidal power station is at : Vizhinjam (Thiruvananthapuram)
    • Power supply in Thiruvananthapuram District started in 1929 March 8 
    • Expand UJALA : Unnat Jyothi by Affordable LEDs for All
    • UJALA was launched on 1st May 2015 by Narendra Modi
    • First total electrified district in Kerala : Palakkad 
    • The first Gramapanchayat in Kerala to generate electricity : Mankulam
    •  The only Municipal Corpoation in Kerala to distribute electricity : Thrissur (Thrissur Corporation Electricity Department)


    Power Plants in Kerala under KSEB:

    Sl. No Power Plant Number
    1 Hydroelectric Power Plant 30
    2 Thermal Power Plant 2
    3 Wind Farm 1
    4 Solar Power Plant 1





    1. Hydroelectric Power Projects


    • First Hydroelectric Power Project in Kerala : Pallivasal  (1940)
    • The production of Hydroelectric Power was started at Pallivasal in 1910 by the British Company : The Kannan Devan Hill Produce Company 
    • Pallivasal Hydroelectric PowerProject is located in which river : Muthirapuzha 
    • Pallivasal Hydroelectric Project was commissioned in : 1940
    • The district which has the largest number of power station in Kerala : Idukki
    • The biggest hydroelectric power project in Kerala : Idukki 
    • The first arch dam in India : Idukki Dam
    • The Idukki Dam is situated between the hills: Kuravan Mala and Kurathi Mala
    •  The country which helped in the construction of Idukki Hydroelectric Power Project : Canada
    • The commercial power production in Idukki started in : 12th february1976 inaugurated by Indira Gandhi
    • The largest underground Hydroelectric Project in India : Moolamattom
    • Hydroelectric Project undertaken by District Panchayat : Meenvallam, Palakkad
    • Hydroelectric Projects in Kerala under private ownership : Maniyar (Pathanamthitta) and Kuthungal (Palakkad)
    • First private Hydroelectric project in Kerala : Maniyar
    • Largest privet Hydroelectric project in Kerala : Kuthungal



    Sl. No Project Tributary/River District
    1 Adyanpara Kanjirapuzha/Chaliyar River Malapuram
    2 Chebukadavu Stage I Chalipuzha River Kozhikode
    3 Chebukadavu Stage II Chalipuzha River Kozhikode
    4 Chimmony Chimmony/Karuvannur  Thrissur
    5 Idamalyar Idamalayar River Ernakulam
    6 Idukki Periyar River Idukki
    7 Kakkad Moozhiyar, Veluthodu/ Pampa River Pathanamthitta
    8 Kallada Kallada River Kollam
    9 Kuttiyadi Kuttiyadi River Kozhikode
    10 Kuttiyadi Tailrace Kuttiyadi River Kozhikode
    11 Lower Meenmutty Kallar River Thiruvananthapuram
    12 Lower Periyar Periyar River Idukki
    13 Malampuzha Malampuzha River Palakkad
    14 Malankara Muvattupuzha River Idukki
    15 Mattupetty Periyar River Idukki
    16 Neriamangalam Periyar River Ernakulam
    17 Pallivasal Muthirapuzha/Periyar Idukki
    18 Panniar Panniar/Periyar River Idukki
    19 Peechi Manali River Thrissur
    20 Peppara Karamana River Thiruvananthapuram
    21 Poozhithode Illyanipuzha and Kadantharapuzha Kozhikode
    22 Poringalkuthu Chalakudy River Thrissur
    23 Poringalkuthu (left Bank extension) Chalakudy River Thrissur
    24 Ranni Perinad Pamba River Pathanamthitta
    25 Sabarigiri Kakki/Pamba River Pathanamthitta
    26 Sengulam Mudirapuzha River Idukki
    27 Sholayar Sholayar River Thrissur
    28 Urumi Stage I Iruvanchipuzha River Kozhikode
    29 Urumi Stage II Iruvanchipuzha River Kozhikode
    30 Vilangad Kavadi,Vaniyam/Mahe River Kozhikode

    2. Thermal Power Projects


    • First Thermal Power Plan in Kerala : Bramapuram Diesel Power Plant
    • Second Thermal Power Plant in Kerala : Nallalam
    • Thermal Power PLant at Kayamkulam is known as : Rajiv Gandhi Combained Cycle Power Plant
    • Rajiv Gandhi Combained Cycle Power PLant is owned by : National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd (NTPC)
    • Kayamkulam Power Plant was inaugurated by : Atal Bihari Vajpayee
    • Diesel Power Plants in Kerala: Brahmapuram and Nallalam
    • Power Plants that uses Natural Gas as fuesl in Kerala : Cheemeni and Vypin
    • Thermal Power Plants owned by KSEB : Brahmapuram and Nallalam
    • Vypin Thermal Power Plant is owned by Bombay Suburban Electricity Supply (BSES) Kerala Power Ltd
    • Cheemeni Thermal Plant is controlled by KSEB and KSIDC (Kerala State Industrial Development COrporation)


    Sl. No Project District Fuel
    1 Brahmapuram Ernakulam Diesel
    2 Cheemeni Kasargod Natural Gas
    3 Kayamkulam Alapuzha Naphtha
    4 Nallalam Kozhikode Diesel
    5 Vypin Ernakulam Natural Gas


    3. Wind Power Plant

    • First Wind Power Plant in Kerala : Kanjikode Wind Farm (Operated by KSEB)
    • Wind Farms operated by Private Sector in Kerala : Ramakalmedu (Idukki), Agali (Palakkad) and Attapadi (Palakkad)

    4. Solar Power Plant

    • Biggest floating Solar Plant in India is at : Kayamkulam operated by NTPC
    • KSEB launches first Solar Plant at : Kanjikode (Pa;akkad)
    • Other Solar Power Plants in Kerala : Kasargod Solar Power Park, Cochin International Airport (Nedumbassery) and Edayar (Ernakulam)

    Friday, April 26, 2019

    Important (Mountain) Passes/Gaps in India



    A mountain Pass is a path through the mountain range that can be used to travel.

    • The place known as the 'Land of Passes' : Ladakh
    • The Pass which is known as 'Gateway of India' : Bolan Pass
    • The Pass which is known as 'Gateway to India' : Khyber Pass
    • The pass which is known as 'Gateway of Kerala' : Palakkad Pass 




      1. Nathu La Pass :   
      • The Pass known as Silk Route of India
      • Located in the state of Sikkim
      • Nathu La Pass connects India (Sikkim) and China (Tibet)
      • Nathu La Pass was closed in 1962 (Sino-Indian War)
      • Nathu La Pass was re-opened in 6th July 2006
      • Length of Nathu La Pass : 54 Km

        2. Asirgarh  Pass :
        • Known as key to Deccan
        • Located in Madhya Pradesh
        • Connects the valleys of Narmada and Tapti rivers

        3. Khardung La Pass :
        • The highest motorable pass in India
        • Located in Ladakh (Jammu and Kashmir)
        • Connects Leh and Siachen Glacier
        • Khardung La Pass is the gateway of Shyok and Nubra Valley
        • Khardung La Pass is maintained by Border Roads Organisation (BRO).
        • BRO was founded in 1960
        • Head Quarters of BRO in New Delhi
        • Supply to the soldiers serving in Siachen Glaciers are routed through Khardung Pass

        4. Khyber Pass :
        • Pass Known as Gateway to India
        •  Located in Pakisthan
        • Connects Pakistan and Afghanistan

          5. Zoji La Pass :
          • Located in Jammu Kashmir
          • Connects Kashmir and Ladakh
          • NH 1 passes through Zoji La Pass
          • Zoji La Pass separates Kashmir Valley and Dras Valley
          • Created by Indus river
          • Zoji La Tunnel Project was approved by the Government of India in January 2018

          6. Shipki La Pass :

          • Located at Himachal Pradesh
          • Connects Himachel Pradesh and Tibet
          • Sutlej river enters India through this pass

            7. Bolan Pass :
            • Known as Gateway of India
            • Located in Pakistan
            • Connects Pakistan and Afganistan

              8. Jalep La Pass :
              • Located in Sikkim
              • Connects Sikkim and Tibet
              • Jalep La was created by Tista River
              • Tista River is known as Life Line of Sikkim

              9. Bhor Ghat Pass :
              • Located in Maharashtra
              • Connects Mumbai and Pune3
              • Located in Western Ghats

              10. Thal Ghat Pass :
              • Located in Maharashtra
              • Connects Mumbai and Nasik
              • Located in Western Ghats





              List of Important Passes in India are given below:





              Sl No Pass State Connecting Places
              1 Asirgarh Pass Madhya Pradesh  Valleys of Narmada and Tapti
              2 Auden's Col Pass Uttarakhand  Valleys of Rudugaira and Bhilangna
              3 Banihal Pass  Jammu and Kashmir (Jammu, Kashmir)  Jammu & Kashmir
              4 Bara-lacha-la Pass Himachal Pradesh  Himachal Pradesh & Ladakh
              5 Bomdila Pass Arunachal Pradesh  Arunachal Pradesh & Tibet
              6 Changla Pass  Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh)  Leh & Changthang
              7 Chanshal Pass  Himachal Pradesh 
              8 Dehra Compass Pass  Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh) 
              9 Debsa Pass  Himachal Pradesh 
              10 Diphu Pass  Arunachal Pradesh 
              11 Dongkhala Pass Sikkim  Sikkim & Tibet
              12 Fotu La Pass Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh)  Leh & Kargil
              13 Goecha La Pass Sikkim 
              14 Haldighati Pass  Rajasthan 
              15 Indrahar Pass  Himachal Pradesh 
              16 Jelep La Pass Sikkim  Sikkim & Tibet
              17 Jalori Pass  Himachal Pradesh 
              18 Khardung La Pass Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh)  Leh & Nubra
              19 Kongka Pass  Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh)  Ladakh & Aksai Chin
              20 Lanak Pass  Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh)  Ladakh & Tibet
              21 Kunzum Pass  Himachal Pradesh  Lahaul & Spiti
              22 Karakoram Pass  Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh)  Ladakh & Xinjiang
              23 Lipulekh Pass  Uttarakhand  Uttarakand and Tibet
              24 Lungalacha La Pass Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh) 
              25 Lamkhaga Pass  Himachal Pradesh 
              26 Marsimik La Pass Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh) 
              27 Mana Pass  Uttarakhand 
              28 Namika La Pass Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh)  Kargil and Leh
              29 Nama Pass  Uttarakhand 
              30 Nathu La Pass Sikkim  Sikkim & Tibet
              31 Palakkad Pass Kerala  Palakkad & Coimbatore
              32 Thamarassery Pass Kerala  Kozhikode & Mysore
              33 Sengottai Pass (Aryankavu Pass) Kerala  Punalur & Sengottai
              34 Pensi La Pass Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh) 
              35 Rezang La Pass Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh) 
              36 Rohtang Pass  Himachal Pradesh  Manali & Lahaul
              37 Sasser Pass  Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh)  Nubra & Siachen Glacier
              38 Sela Pass  Arunachal Pradesh 
              39 Shipki La Pass Himachal Pradesh  Himachel Pradesh & Tibet
              40 Sia La Pass Jammu and Kashmir (Siachen Glacier) 
              41 Shingo La Pass Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh) 
              42 Spangur Pass Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh) 
              43 Gyong La Pass Jammu and Kashmir (Siachen Glacier) 
              44 Bilafond La Pass Jammu and Kashmir (Siachen Glacier) 
              45 Sin La Pass Uttarakhand 
              46 Tanglang La Pass Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh) 
              47 Traill's Pass  Uttarakhand 
              48 Zojila Pass  Jammu and Kashmir (Kashmir, Ladakh)  Kashmir & Ladakh