Monday, May 27, 2019

Kerala PSC - Blood Groups

  • Who discovered Blood Group : Karl Landsteiner 
  • Karl Landsteiner discovered blood groups in : 1900
  • Karl Landsteiner got Nobel Prize in : 1930
  • Karl Landsteiner got Nobel Prize for : the discovery of blood groups
  • The four main blood groups in humans are : A, B, AB and O
  • The factor that determines the blood group in humans : Antigens
  • Substance that induces immune response in human body : Antigen
  • Antigens are found in : surface of  Red Blood Cells (RBC)
  • Substance produced in human body to destroy substances that carry disease : Antibody
  • The proteins formed against antigens are called : Antibodies
  • Antibodies are produced by : Lymphocytes
  • Smallest White Blood Cells (WBC) : Lymphocytes
  • Antibodies are transported by : Blood Plasma
  • Types of antigens in determining the blood group : Antigen A and Antigen B
  • Types of antibodies : Antibody a and Antibody b
  • Blood group without Antigen : O
  • Blood group without Antibody : AB

Blood Group Antigen Antibody
A A b
B B a
AB A, B -
O - a, b

Blood Group Donate to Receive from
A A, AB A, O
B B, AB B, O
O A, B, AB, O O

Some questions are asked in PSC exam regarding the blood group relation of parents and child. The below table illustrates the blood group relation of parents and child

Parent -1 Parent -2 Child
A B A/ B/ AB/ O
A  O A/ O
B B B/ O
B O B/ O

  • Mixing of  antigens with corresponding antibodies will result in clotting of blood : Aglutination
  • Rh Factor Antigen is seen in : Red Blood Cells
  • Rh Antigen was discovered by : Karl Landsteiner 
  • Rh factor was first discovered in : Rhesus Monkeys
  • The presence of Rh Antigen in blood indicates blood group is : Positive (+ ve)
  • The absence of Rh Antigen in blood indicates that the blood group is : Negative (- ve)
  • Blood group known as universal donor : O -
  • Blood group known as universal recipient : AB +
  •  Most common blood group : O +
  • Rare blood group : Bombay Group and AB -

Blood Group H :
Besides antigen A nd B there is another antigen named H. Normally antigen H is recessive in nature in presence of antigen A or B. In some people with O group, they may not have antigen H instead they have small H subsrates. Such blood group is called Bombay Blood Group. Bombay group was first discovered by Dr.Y M Bhende in 1952

  • The condition caused by incompatibility (non - matching) of Rh factor : Eritroblastosis Fetalis

Erytroblastosis Fetalis
Suppose a mother is having negative blood goup. If the first child is having positive blood group, it does not cause any proble. But if the second child also have positive blood group, the RBC of the fetus will get destroyed. This condition is called Erytroblastosis Fetalis

Related Post:

  1. Circulatory System : Blood

Saturday, May 25, 2019



 Child Development and Pedagogy

1. Which of the following is not a stage of concept formation proposed by Jerome S Bruner ?

   (a) Enactive Stage

   (b) Iconic Stage

   (c) Symbolic Stage

   (d) Application Stage

2. Development of human beings start from :

   (a) Pre-natal Stage

   (b) Infancy Stage

   (c) Pre-childhood Stage

   (d) Post-childhood Stage

3. While engaging the class, Femina teacher asks questions only to the boys in the class. This is the best incident of:

   (a) Gender equity

   (b) Gender Equality

   (c) Gender bias

   (d) Gender justice

4. In classical conditioning, the conditional response are:

   (a) Same

   (b) Different

   (c) Can be same or different

   (d) Variedly different

5. In the context of learning theories, 'Scaffolding' refers to :

   (a) identify the causes of mistakes done by the students

   (b) review of knowledge aquired

   (c) the support provided to the learner by elders or teachers

   (d) to ascertain the previous knowledge of the learner

6. Albert Bandura's processes observational learning are :

   (a) Attention, Retention, Performance, Motivation

   (b) Attention, Interest, Activities, Retention

   (c) Interest, Attention, Perception, Performance

   (d) Attention, Retention, Perception, Motivation

7. 'Actually it is not one particular condition, it is a set of behaviour such as excessive restlessess and short attention span'. It refers to :

   (a) Autism

   (b) ADHD

   (c) Cerebral Palsy

   (d) Mental Retardation

8. Which of the following can be found by using an Intelligence Test ?

   (a) Attitude of the learner

   (b) Problem solving ability of the learner

   (c) Aptitude of the learner

   (d) Interest of the learner

9. Which of the following is not a principle of development ?

   (a) Development involves changes

   (b) Development is the product of maturation and learning

   (c) Development pattern is unpredictable

   (d) There are individual differences in development

10. Which of the following is not directly related with creativity

   (a) Fluency, flexibility and orginality

   (b) Divergent Thinking

   (c) Convergent Thinking

   (d) articulating ideas, novelty and innovation

11. The topmost hierarchy in Maslow's hierarchy of needs :

   (a) Aesthetic needs

   (b) Self actualisation

   (c) Safety needs

   (d) Biological Needs

12. Need for affiliation, need for power and need for achievement, related with the theory of motivation was proposed by :

   (a) Abraham Maslow

   (b) Mc Clelland

   (c) Bandura

   (d) Adler

13. The 'feeling' aspect related to the behavioural change falls in __________ domain of learning

   (a) Cognitive

   (b) Psychomotor

   (c) Affective

   (d) All the above

14. Capacities to percieve the visual world around accurately and to perform transformation on one's initial perception is Gardener's _________ intelligence.

   (a) Logical Mathematical

   (b) Visual, Spatical

   (c) Naturalistic

   (d) Existential

15. In trial and error theory:

   (a) learning is occured by chance

   (b) right responses are selected from among so many responses after repeated trials

   (c) the organism reaches the point of success slowly

    (d) all the above

16.  EQ was described deeply and popularised by  _______

   (a) Alfred Binet

   (b) Charles spearman

   (c) Howard Gardner

   (d) Daniel Goleman

17. Association between Stimulus and Response leading to learning is emphasized by :

   (a) Humanism

   (b) Constructivism

   (c) Behaviourism

   (d) Cognitivism

18. Anna, obeys the teacher in the fear of getting punishment. Based on Kohlberg's level of moral development, she is in the  _________ level

   (a) Conventional morality level

   (b) Preconventional morality level

   (c) Postconventional morality level

   (d) Good child morality level

19. Which of the following is true with regard to child centered learning ?

   (a) The teacher enables the learners to talk and allow them to think and work in small groups

   (b) The teacher dictates the answers to the questions of the textbook

   (c) The teacher explains everything without caring the response of the students

   (d) The teacher enables the learner to read Textbook in the clssroom.

20. Which among the following statement is true about learning ?

   (a) learning is effective in an environment that is emotionally positive and satisfying for the learner.

   (b) errors made by the children indicate that no learning has taken place.

   (c) learning is fundamentally a mental activity

   (d) learning is not affected by emotional factors at any stage of learning.

21. According to Noam Chomsky, the rudimentary form of language is being

   (a) found in society

   (b) stored in brain

   (c) transferred through eduation

   (d) developed by interaction

22. The mental age and chronological age of a student are same. What can be inferred from this with regard to the IQ of the student ?

   (a) The IQ will be more than 130

   (b) The IQ will be 120

   (c) The IQ will be 100

   (d) The IQ will be less than 100

23. The stage of cognitive development, according to a piaget, to which a child displays 'organised logical thinking' is :

   (a) Sensory motor stage

   (b) Pre-operational stage

   (c) Formal operational stage

   (d) Concrete operational stage

24. 'A child's entry to the school can be described as an entry to the life of the child'. These words of Erickson is related with which stage of Psycho social development ?

   (a) Trust Vs Mistrust

   (b) Autonomy Vs Shame/doubt

   (c) Identity Vs Identity crisis

   (d) Industry Vs Inferiority

25. Alok a 7th standard student is very slow in all the activities related with learning and shows very low improvement . Teacher may identify Alok as :

   (a) mild retarded

   (b) normal

   (c) severely retarded

   (d) profoundly retarded

26. Arun is trying to ride bicycle for a month. But he cannot stioll ride it smoothly. Which learning Disability is this ?

   (a) Dysnomia

   (b) Dyslexia

   (c) Dysgraphia

   (d) Dyspraxia

27. Which of the following is not the characteristics of a construcivist teacher ?

   (a) friend and guide

   (b) encourager

   (c) strict in activating

   (d) researcher

28. Which of the following is the most appropriate for gifted students ?

   (a) Write a report of seminar held on the class

   (b) Write a dramatisation script for the poem to study

   (c) Doing the activities given in the Textbook

   (d) Answer the questions posed by the teachers

29. Which method is most suitable for primary classes ?

   (a) lecture method

   (b) seminar

   (c) story telling method

   (d) discussion

30. 'Through assimilation and accommodation children develop increasingly more advanced and integrated schemas over time'. Whose words are this ?

   (a) Jerome S Bruner

   (b) Piaget

   (c) Skinner

   (d) Vygotsky


General Science

1. The most appropriate chart to be used to show the experimental arrangement for the lab preparation of NH3 (Ammonia) is :

   (a) Table chart

   (b) Content chart

   (c) Picture chart

   (d) Tree  chart

2. A soft metal among the following is :

   (a) Iron

   (b) Sodium

   (c) Titanium

   (d) Tungsten

3. Instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure :

   (a) Lactometer

   (b) Barometer

   (c) Thermometer

   (d) Hydrometer

4. The name argentum is associated with the element :

   (a) Antimony

   (b) Argon

   (c) Mercury

   (d) Silver

5. Curriculum means :

   (a) Totality of the experiences from the school

   (b) Totality of classroom experiences

   (c) Subjects to be learned

   (d) Syllabus of the course

6. Which of the following is NOT a cause of HIV transmission ?

   (a) Multiple sex partners

   (b) Sharing infected needles

   (c) Sharing of utensils

   (d) Transfusion of contaminated blood

7. After completing the unit of periodic table, the teacher wants to assess how much the students have attained the concept of periodic table, then the most appropriate test to be used is :

   (a) Diagnostic Test

   (b) Prognostic Test

   (c) Achievement Test

   (d) Comparative Test

8. The inability of a body to change its state of rest or uniform motion along a straight line is called its :

   (a) Momentum

   (b) Velocity

   (c) Acceleration

   (d) Inertia

9. Analysis        : Cognitive domain;
   Organisation   : __________

   (a) Affective domain

   (b) Psychomotor domain

   (c) Creativity domain

   (d) Attitudinal domain

10. Weight of a body of mass 10 kg :

   (a) 10 N

   (b) 49 N

   (c) 98 N

   (d) 0.1 N

11. Hottest planet of our solar system :

   (a) Mercury

   (b) Venus

   (c) Earth

   (d) Mars

12. The number of neutrons present in tritium is :

   (a) 0

   (b) 1

   (c) 2

   (d) 3

13. The type of evaluation for monitoring learning process is :

   (a) Diagonostic evaluation

   (b) Formative evaluation

   (c) Prognostic evaluation

   (d) Summative evaluation

14. Some blue green algae are used as bio-fertilizers because :

   (a) They can perform photosynthesis

   (b) They are covered by mucilage

   (c) They can grow everywhere

   (d) They are capable of nitrogen fixation

15. The type of interaction among organism in which both are benefitted is :

   (a) Commensalism

   (b) Mutualism

   (c) Parasitism

   (d) Predation

16. Which of the following is not an essential component of a normal lesson plan ?

   (a) Objectives

   (b) Learning activities

   (c) Content analysis

   (d) Remedial instruction

17. Solar eclipse takes place when the :

   (a) Sun is between moon and earth

   (b) Earth is between moon and sun

   (c) Moon is between the sun and earth

   (d) Moon does not lie on the line joining the sun and earth

18. Which among the following is an example for neutralisation reaction ?

   (a) AgNO3 + KCl --> AgCl + KNO3

   (b) CaCO3 --> CaO + CO2

   (c) HCl + KOH --> KCL + H2O

   (d) Zn + 2NaOH --> Na2ZnO2 + H2

19. Sound waves cannot travel through :

   (a) Solids

   (b) Liquids

   (c) Gases

   (d) Vacuum

20. Highest level of cognitive objective based on revised Bloom's taxonomy is :

   (a) Analysing

   (b) Applying

   (c) Creating

   (d) Evaluating

21. Which of the following is a projected aid ?

   (a) Black board

   (b) Cartoons

   (c) Over Head Projector

   (d) Graphs

22. The sum of genes in a population is called :

   (a) Gene Pool

   (b) Gene Type

   (c) Karyotype

   (d) Phenotype

23. Blood does not clot inside blood vessels due to the presence of :

   (a) Fibrinogen

   (b) Heparin

   (c) Thrombin

   (d) Vitamin K

24. Which of the following is NOT a member of Vitamin B Complex ?

   (a) Ascorbic acid

   (b) Folic acid

   (c) Niacin

   (d) Riboflavin

25. The atom having three valence electrons among the following is :

   (a) Aluminium

   (b) Argon

   (c) Bromine

   (d) Silicon

26. Example for a non conventional energy source is:

   (a) Fossil Fuel

   (b) Bio Mass

   (c) Solar Energy

   (d) Hydro Electric Project

27. Which among the following is polyatomic ?

   (a) Hydrogen

   (b) Neon

   (c) Sodium

   (d) Sulphur

28. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of cooperative learning ?

   (a) Competition

   (b) Group Discussion

   (c) Individual Accountability

   (d) Positive interdependence

29. The maximum number of electrons that can be accommodated in the 4th shell of an atom is :

   (a) 2

   (b) 8

   (c) 16

   (d) 32

30. Which is the branch od science that deals with identification nomenclature and classification of organisms ?

   (a) Anatomy

   (b) Ecology

   (c) Morphology

   (d) Taxonomy


Social Science

1. Industries are included in which of the following sector ?

   (a) Primary Sector

   (b) Secondary Sector

   (c) Tertiary Sector

   (d) None of the above

2. In which amongst the following state, the sex ratio is favorable  for female as per 2011 census ?

   (a) Tamil Nadu

   (b) Kerala

   (c) Bihar

   (d) Gujarat

3. Horizontal transfer of heat through wind is termed as :

   (a) Conduction

   (b) Convection

   (c) Radiation

   (d) Advection

4. Hygrometer is used to measure :

   (a) Wind Direction

   (b) Atmospheric Pressure

   (c) Wind Velocity

   (d) Humidity

5. The highest peak in Peninsular India is located in :

   (a) Tamil Nadu

   (b) Kerala

   (c) Karnataka

   (d) Andhra Pradesh

6. Some features of stone age culture are given below. Which among them is closely related to Palaeolithic age ?

   (a) Rough stone weapons and tools used

   (b) Settled life began

   (c) Agriculture started

   (d) Pottery making commenced

7. The city known as Cottonopolis of India is:

   (a) Ahemedabad

   (b) Mumbai

   (c) Coimbatore

   (d) Bengaluru

8. When did the Santhals resist against the British ?

   (a) 1857

   (b) 1855

   (c) 1812

   (d) 1859

9. What is the time difference between Indian Standard Time and Greenwich Mean Time ?

   (a) 15 Minutes

   (b) 12 Hours

   (c) 5 Hours 30 Minutes

   (d) 1 Hour

10. Earth's mantle extends upto a depth of :

   (a) 3400 Km

   (b) 2900 Km

   (c) 6400 Km

   (d) 60 Km

11. Coins in India are issued by :

   (a) Ministry of Finance

   (b) Reserve Bank of India

   (c) NITI AYOG

   (d) State Bank of India

12. Who is the father of  Green Revolution in India ?

   (a) Dr. Vargheese Kurian

   (b) Subash Palekkar

   (c) Sundarlal Bahuguna

   (d) Dr. M S Swaminathan

13. Which of the following institution is connected with the procurement and storage of food grains in India ?

   (a) FCI

   (b) SBI
   (c) IFCI

   (d) None of the above

14.  Who made lightning attacks (guerilla warfare) on the British Troops in Central India and Rajasthan during military uprising of 1857 ?

   (a) Beegom Hazrath Mahal

   (b) Thantia Tope

   (c) Rani Lakshmi Bai

   (d) Kanwar Singh

15. The ruler of Travancore who declared the Temple Entry Proclamation (1936) :

   (a) Sri Chithira Thirunal

   (b) Sri Moolam Thirunal

   (c) Ayyilam Thirunal

   (d) Swathi Thirunal

16. Percapita Income means :

   (a) Aggregate Income

   (b) Total Income

   (c) Average Individual Income

   (d)  Foreign Income

17. The main venue of Salt Sathyagraha in Malabar was :

   (a) Manjeri

   (b) Ottapalam

   (c) Payyannur

   (d) Mattanur

18. Which one is not included in the Parliament Land Revenue System ?

   (a) The tax was collected by Zamindars

   (b) Farmers were to pay upto 60% of the yield as tax

   (c) The tax was to be paid in cash strictly before the cut - off date

   (d) Tax was not to be paid at the time of poor yield

19. Four fundamental features of early river valley civilizations are given below. Which is the feature related to Mesopotamian Civilization among them.

   (a) Great Bath

   (b) Osiris Cult

   (c) Heirogliphics Script

   (d) Cuneiform Script

20. The largest planet is :

   (a) Earth

   (b) Mercury

   (c) Jupiter

   (d) Saturn

21.Which among the following is a local wind ?

   (a) Trade winds

   (b) Westerlies

   (c) Polar winds

   (d) Chinook

22. Who is the author of the notable novel, ' Anandamath' ?

   (a) Dinabandhu Mitra

   (b) Ravindra Nath Tagore

   (c) Bankim Chandra Chatterji

   (d) Premchand

23. White revolution relates to increase in the production of :

   (a) Wheat

   (b) Rice

   (c) Milk

   (d) Egg

24. Earth Day is celebrated on :

   (a) 22 April

   (b) 5 June

   (c) 5 December

   (d) 16 September

25. Which was the first struggle in which Gandhiji involved after returning to India from South Africa ?

   (a) Ahmedbad Cotton Mill Struggle

   (b) Non-Co-operation Movement

   (c) Champaran Sathyagraha

   (d) Kheda Sathyagraha

26. Who was the pioneer among the social reformers strived for the modernisation of Indian Society ?

   (a) Swami Dayananda Saraswathy

   (b) Raja Ram Mohan Roy

   (c) Jyothiba Phule

   (d) Swami Vivekananda

27.  Who designed and framed the machine Spinning Jenny ?

   (a) James Hargreaves

   (b) Samual Crompton

   (c) John Kay

   (d) Richard Arkwright

28. The conventional colour used to represent roads in topographical maps is :

   (a) Red

   (b) Black

   (c) Brown

   (d) Grey

29. Which among the following pairs of days are Equinoxes ?

   (a) 21 March and 21 June

   (b) 21 June and 23 September

   (c) 23 September and 22 December

   (d) 21 March and 23 September

30. River Mahanadi originates from :

   (a) Western Ghats

   (b) Maikala Range

   (c) Mahabaleswar

   (d) Brahmagiri

31. Reliability of a test is :

   (a) Usefulness

   (b) Ojectivity

   (c) Consistency of results

   (d) Objective basedness

32. The party system that exists in India is :

   (a) One Party System

   (b) Multi Party System

   (c) Two Party System

   (d) None of these

33. Maximum number of members in Rajya Sabha is :

   (a) 256

   (b) 240

   (c) 250

   (d) 260

34. CAI is :

   (a) Community Aided Instruction

   (b) Competency Acquired Instruction

   (c) Competency Added Instruction

   (d) Computer Assisted Instruction

35. Which of the following is a learning strategy suitable to promote creativity ?

   (a) Demonstration

   (b) Simulation

   (c) Role Play

   (d) Brain Storming

36. The first step in Herbartian approach to lesson planning is :

   (a) Presentation

   (b) Association

   (c) Introduction

   (d) Generalisation

37. Which is not a curriculum construction ?

   (a) Principle of Child Centredness

   (b) Principle of Society Centredness

   (c) Principle of Textbook Centredness

   (d) Principle of Flexibility

38. The state in which Parliamentary democracy came into existence for the first time :

   (a) Britain

   (b) India

   (c) America

   (d) Canada

39. The Curriculum Approach based on Gestalt theory ?

   (a) Spiral Curriculum Approach

   (b) Concentric Curriculum Approach

   (c) Topical Curriculum Approach

   (d) Unit Curriculum Approach

40. Planning Commission was replaced in 2015 by :

   (a) NITI AYOG

   (b)Planning Authority

   (c) Finance Committee

   (d) Expenditure Committee

41. How many nominated members are there in Lok Sabha ?

   (a) One

   (b) Two

   (c) Three

   (d) Twelve

42. Which is not a subject included in Social Science ?

   (a) Economics

   (b) Linguistic

   (c) Sociology

   (d) Political Science

43. Which of the following learning material is most effective according to Edgar Dale ?

   (a) Motion Picture

   (b) Direct purposeful experience

   (c) Verbal Symbol

   (d) Visual Symbol

44. A source directly related to the historical event is :

   (a) Primary Source

   (b) Secondary Source

   (c) Tertiary Source

   (d) Reported Source

45. Which is not associated with constructivist learning design ?

   (a) Questioning

   (b) Reflecting

   (c) Re-capitulating

   (d) Bridging

46. Homogeneous grouping is suitable for :

   (a) Brighter Learners

   (b) Backward Learners

   (c) Average Learners

   (d) Al Learners

47. Who is known as Commander-in-Chief of armed forces in India

   (a) Defence Minister

   (b) Prime Minister

   (c) Home MInister

   (d) President of India

48. Which of the following is an essential element of State ?

   (a) Free Media

   (b) Political Parties

   (c) Population

   (d) Democracy

49. The factor payment made for land is :

   (a) Wage

   (b) Profit

   (c) Interest

   (d) Rent

50. Inquiry objectives are helpful for learner to develop :

   (a) Group work Skills

   (b) Mental Competencies

   (c) Social Skills

   (d) Values and Attitudes

51. Frequent and Intermittent Evaluation is :

   (a) Formative Evaluation

   (b) Comprehensive Evaluation

   (c) Cumulative Evaluation

   (d) Summative Evaluation

52. 'Recalls' is a specification under :

   (a) Knowledge

   (b) Comprehension

   (c) Application

   (d) Analysis

53. Project method is an outcome of :

   (a) Naturalism

   (b) Idealism

   (c) Realism

   (d) Pragmatism

54. Which is a specification under Application ?

   (a) Hypothesis

   (b) Compares

   (c) Classifies

   (d) Explains

55. What are specifications ?

   (a) Long term Goals

   (b) Vision of Social Science

   (c) General and Broad Outcomes

   (d) Observable and Measurable Outcomes

56. Which of the following is a national political party ?

   (a) Telugu Desam Party

   (b) Bahujan Samaj Party

   (c) National Conference

   (d) Akalidal

57. The Institution known as Guardian of Fundamental Rights :

   (a) Executive

   (b) Lok Sabha

   (c) Supreme Court

   (d) Legislature

58. 'Valuing' is a classification of objective under :

   (a) Cognitive Domain

   (b) Affective Domain

   (c) Psycomotor Domain

   (d) Creativity Domain

59. Television is an example :

   (a) 3D Aid

   (b) Audio Visual Aid

   (c) Graphic Aid

   (d) Projected Aid

60. Dalton plan developed by :

   (a) Benjamin Bloom

   (b) Dweight Allen

   (c) Hellen Parkhurst

   (d) Kieth Anderson

Related Posts:


K TET - January /February 2019 (Malayalam) Question Paper


Tuesday, May 14, 2019

Kerala PSC Physics - Light (Part- I)

Light is a electromagnetic radiation that occupies certain position in electromagnetic spectrum.

    • Study of Light : Optics
    • The substances that will not pass light through them are called : Opaque Substances
    • The substances that allows light to pass through them are called : Translucent Substance
    • The substance that allows light to partially pass through them are called : Translucent Substance 
    • Speed of Light was first calculated by : Ole Christensen Roemer
    • Speed of light : 3 X 108 m/s
    • In the equation, E = mc2, 'c' stands for : Velocity of Light
    • Time taken by light to reach Earth from Sun : 8 Minutes and 20 Seconds (500 Seconds)
    • Time taken by light to reach Earth from Moon : 1.3 Second
    • The light has maximum speed in : Vacuum
    • Speed of light is inversely proportional to the density of the medium
    • The scientist who found that the speed of light is maximum in vacuum is : Leon Foucault
    • Unit used for the measurement of wavelength of light : Angstrom
    • The medium in which the speed of light is minimum : Diamond
    • The light has least density in vacuum and maximum density in diamond
    • The particles that travel faster than light : Tachyons
    • Indian scientist who discovered Tachyons : E C G Sudharsanan
    • The word Tachyons was first used by the scientist : Gerald Feinberg
    • The distance traveled by the light in one year is called : Light Year
    • Light Year is a unit of : Distance
    • Light Year is used to measure the distance between stars
    • One Light Year is : 9.46 X 1012  Km
    • Smallest unit used to measure distance in space is : Astronomical Unit
    • One Astronomical Unit (AU) is : 1.5 X 108 Km
    • The distance between Earth and Sun is : 1 AU
    • One parsec is : 3.26 Light Years
    • The scientist who discovered light is an electromagnetic wave : Heinrich Rudolph Hertz
    • The position (wavelength) of visible light in electromagnetic spectrum : 400 nm to 700 nm
    • Which electromagnetic wave carries more energy : Gamma Rays
    • Optical telescope detects : Visible light

     Light - Colours 

    • Primary colours are : Red, Green and Blue
    • Secondary Colours are : Magenta, Yellow and Cyan
    • Red + Blue = Magenta
    • Red + Green = Yellow
    • Green + Blue = Cyan
    •  The combination of primary and secondary colour that forms white light : Complimentary Colour
    • Red + Cyan = White
    • Green + Magenta = White
    • Blue + Yellow = White
    • Visible light consists of seven colours : VIBGYOR
    • VIBGYOR - Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green,Yelow, Orange and Red
    • The colour at the centre of the rainbow: Green
    • The Red colour in rainbow is seen at an angle : 42.8 o
    • The Violet colour in rainbow is seen at an angle : 40.8
    • The shape of the rainbow when looked from outer space : Circle
    • Violet has least wavelength
    • Red has maximum wavelength
    • Red has minimum frequency
    • Violet has maximum frequency
    • Colour that absorbs all other colour : Black
    • Colour that reflects all other colour : White
    • Colour that absorbs maximum heat : Black
    • Colour that absorbs minimum heat : White
    • Rainbow appears in the opposite direction of Sun
    • The colour that appears above the rainbow : Red
    • The colour that appears below the rainbow : Violet
    • The colour of the sky when looked from outside of the earth's atmosphere : Black
    • The Red flower when looked through Blue glass appears in : Black
    • The colour of the green leaf in red light : Black
    • The colour used in danger sign boards : Red
    • The colour used in danger sign boards in laboratory : Yellow
    • The colour of light used in vehicles during snowfall : Yellow
    • The most sensitive colour to human eye : Yellow
    • The blue colour of the sky was explained by : Lord Rayleigh
    • The  blue colour of the sky and the yellow colour of the setting sun is due to the phenomenon of : Rayleigh Scattering
    • Blue colour of the sea was explained by : C V Raman
    •  The colour of Nitrogen Vapour Lamp is : Red
    • The colour of Sodium Vapur Lamp is : Yellow
    • The colour of Neon Vapour lamp is : Orange
    • The colour of Chlorine Vapour Lamp is : Green
    • The colour of Hydrogen Vapour Lamp is : Blue
    • The colour of Mercury Vapour lamp is : White
    •  Corpuscular theory was explained by : Issac Newton
    • The corpuscular theory states that light is made up of tiny particles called ‘corpuscles’ that always travel in a straight line.
    • The scientist who proposed that the sunlight consists of seven colours : Issac Newton
    • Wave theory of light is put forward by : Christian Huygens
    • Electromagnetic Theory of light was put forward by : James Clerk Maxwell
    • The process of bouncing back of light when a beam of light falls on a surface : Reflection

     Light - Refraction

    • Bending of light ray when light travels from one medium to another : Refraction
    • The stars twinkle due to : Refraction
    • The phenomenon which causes the optic illusion of Mirage : Refraction
    • Working principle of periscope : Reflection and Refraction
    • Snell's law is associated with : Refraction
    • Glass prism produces spectra by : Refraction
    • Refractive Index, n = c/v        Where 'c' is the velocity of light in vacuum and 'v' is the velocity of light in medium. 

    Medium Refractive Index (n)
    Vacuum 1
    Ice 1.31
    Water 1.33
    Diamond 2.42
    Glass 1.52

     Light - Total Internal Reflection

    •  Sparkling of diamond is due to : Total Internal Reflection of Light
    • Working principle of Optic Fibre is : Total Internal Reflection
    • Sparkling of water droplet is due to : Total Internal Reflection
    • Inventor of Optic Fibre : Narinder Singh Kapany

     Light - Dispersion

    • Splitting of light into its constituent colours is called : Dispersion
    • Device used to slit white light in to its constituent colours : Prism
    • Scientist who explained Dispersion : Issac Newton
    • Phenomenon that occurs in the rainbow : Refraction, Dispersion and Total Internal Reflection

     Light - Interference

    • The process of distribution of light energy when two or more light waves superimposes is called  : Interference
    • The different colours in soap bubbles is due to  : Interference
    • The different colours on soap bubbles is due to : Interference
    • The colours that appear on the upper layer of oil spread on road is due to : Interference
    • The technique of recording and reproducing three dimentional images based on the principle of  interference of light : Holograph
    • The three dimentional images produced through holograph are called : Holograms
    • The interference pattern using light waves was first observed by : Thomas Young

     Light - Diffraction

    • The bending of waves around the corners of an obstacle or through an aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the obstacle/aperture is called : Diffraction
    • The projector in the film theatre works on the principle of  : Diffraction
    • The rings seen around the sun is due to : Diffraction
    • The colours fringes seen on CD is due to : Diffraction

    Light - Polarisation

    • The process of converting the vibration of a transverse wave into a particular direction : Polarisation
    • Turmalin is a naturally polarising material 
    • Nicol prism is a Polaroid 

    Related Post :

    1. Physics : (Light Part - II)

          Wednesday, May 1, 2019

          Islands of Kerala

          1. Dharmadam Island

          • Dharmadam Island is situated in Ancharakandi River
          • Dharmadam Island is in Thalassery in Kannur District
          • Dharmadam Island is also Known as Green Island 

          2. Kavvayi Island

          • Kavvayi Island was situated in Kavvayi Backwaters
          • Kavvayi Island is situated at Payyannur in Kannur District
          • Other islands in the Kavvayi Backwaters are: Valiyaparamba, Padannakkadapuram,Vadakkekadu, Kokkal, Edayilakad, Madakkal, Kannuveed, Kavvayikadapuram, Udumbanthala, Kochen, Vadakkumbad

          3. Kothad Island

          • Kothad Island is located in Periyar River

          4. Kuruva Island

          • Largest riverine Island in Kerala
          • Kuruva Island is located in Kabani River
          • Kuruva Isand is in Wayanad District

          5. Vypin Island

          • Most densely populated island in Kerala
          • Vypin Island is located in Ernakulam District
          • The bridge that connects Vypin Island to Ernakulam : Goshree Bridge

          6. Willingdon  Island

          • Artificial Island near Cocin Shipyard
          • Willingdon Island is situated in Vembanadu Lake
          • The National Highway that connects Willingdon Island with Kundannur : NH 966B
          • Former name of NH 966B : NH 47A
          • The length of NH 966 B : 8 Km

          7. Marakunnam Island

          • Marakunnam Island is in Thiruvananthapuram District. 
          • The Island is in Neyyar River
          • The only lion safari park in Kerala is in Marakunnam Island

          8. Munroe Island

          • Munroe Island is in Kollam district
          • The island is situated n the meeting place of Kallar river and Ashtamudi Lake

          9. Kakkathuruthu Island

          • Kakkathuruthu Island is in Vembanad Lake
          • The island is in Alapuzha district

          10.Velliyamkallu Island

          •  Velliyamkallu Island is an tourist place located in the Arabian sea near Kerala Coast
          • This island is in Kozhikode district

          11. Pathiramanal Island

          • Pathiramanal Island is in Vembenadu Lake
          • This island is in Alapuzha District

          Imporatant islands in Vembanad Lake:
          1. Kadamakudi Island
          2. Mulavukad (Bolgatty) Island
          3. Pathiramanal Island
          4. Vallarpadam Island
          5. Vypin Island
          6. Willingdon Island

          1 Dharmadam Island Thalassery , Kannur
          2 Edayilakadu Island Kasargod
          3 Ezhumanthuruthu Island Kottayyam
          4 Gundu Island Kochi
          5 Kavvayi Islands Payyannur, Kannur
          6 Kothad Island Kochi
          7 Kuruva Island Wayanad
          8 Marakunnam Island Thiruvananthapuram
          9 Moolampilly Island Kochi
          10 Nedungad Island Ernakulam
          11 Panayannarkavu Island Pathanamthitta
          12 Pathiramanal Island Alapuzha
          13 Perumbalam Island Alapuzha
          14 Perumala Island Pathanamthitta
          15 Pizhala Island Kochi
          16 Poochakkal Island Alapuzha
          17 Pulinkunnoo Island Kuttanadu, Alapuzha
          18 Ramanthuruth Island Kochi
          19 Sathar Island Ernakulam
          20 Vallarpadam Island Kochi
          21 Velliyamkallu Kozhikode
          22 Venduruthy Island Kochi
          23 Vypin Island Kochi
          24 Willingdon Island Kochi