Monday, May 27, 2019

Kerala PSC - Blood Groups

  • Who discovered Blood Group : Karl Landsteiner 
  • Karl Landsteiner discovered blood groups in : 1900
  • Karl Landsteiner got Nobel Prize in : 1930
  • Karl Landsteiner got Nobel Prize for : the discovery of blood groups
  • The four main blood groups in humans are : A, B, AB and O
  • The factor that determines the blood group in humans : Antigens
  • Substance that induces immune response in human body : Antigen
  • Antigens are found in : surface of  Red Blood Cells (RBC)
  • Substance produced in human body to destroy substances that carry disease : Antibody
  • The proteins formed against antigens are called : Antibodies
  • Antibodies are produced by : Lymphocytes
  • Smallest White Blood Cells (WBC) : Lymphocytes
  • Antibodies are transported by : Blood Plasma
  • Types of antigens in determining the blood group : Antigen A and Antigen B
  • Types of antibodies : Antibody a and Antibody b
  • Blood group without Antigen : O
  • Blood group without Antibody : AB

Blood Group Antigen Antibody
A A b
B B a
AB A, B -
O - a, b



Blood Group Donate to Receive from
A A, AB A, O
B B, AB B, O
AB AB A, B, AB, O
O A, B, AB, O O


Some questions are asked in PSC exam regarding the blood group relation of parents and child. The below table illustrates the blood group relation of parents and child



Parent -1 Parent -2 Child
A A A/O
A B A/ B/ AB/ O
A AB A/ B/ AB
A  O A/ O
B B B/ O
B AB A/ B/ AB
B O B/ O
AB AB A/ B/ AB
AB O A/ B
O O O


  • Mixing of  antigens with corresponding antibodies will result in clotting of blood : Aglutination
  • Rh Factor Antigen is seen in : Red Blood Cells
  • Rh Antigen was discovered by : Karl Landsteiner 
  • Rh factor was first discovered in : Rhesus Monkeys
  • The presence of Rh Antigen in blood indicates blood group is : Positive (+ ve)
  • The absence of Rh Antigen in blood indicates that the blood group is : Negative (- ve)
  • Blood group known as universal donor : O -
  • Blood group known as universal recipient : AB +
  •  Most common blood group : O +
  • Rare blood group : Bombay Group and AB -

Blood Group H :
Besides antigen A nd B there is another antigen named H. Normally antigen H is recessive in nature in presence of antigen A or B. In some people with O group, they may not have antigen H instead they have small H subsrates. Such blood group is called Bombay Blood Group. Bombay group was first discovered by Dr.Y M Bhende in 1952

  • The condition caused by incompatibility (non - matching) of Rh factor : Eritroblastosis Fetalis

Erytroblastosis Fetalis
Suppose a mother is having negative blood goup. If the first child is having positive blood group, it does not cause any proble. But if the second child also have positive blood group, the RBC of the fetus will get destroyed. This condition is called Erytroblastosis Fetalis



Related Post:

  1. Circulatory System : Blood




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